帳號:guest(18.208.202.194)          離開系統
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  

詳目顯示

以作者查詢圖書館館藏以作者&題名查詢臺灣博碩士以作者查詢全國書目
作者:張辰嘉
作者(英文):Chang, Chen-Chia
論文名稱(中文):飄散在邊界茶園的咖啡香 當代阿卡族咖啡業的民族誌
論文名稱(英文):Coffee Production as a Livelihood Practice Among The Akha in Doi Mae Salong
指導教授(中文):張雯勤
林淑芬
指導教授(英文):Chang, Wen-Chin
Lin, Shu-Fen
口試委員:趙中麒
口試委員(英文):Chao, Chung-Chi
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:亞際文化研究國際碩士學位學程(臺灣聯合大學系統)
學號:0459907
出版年(民國):108
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:124
中文關鍵詞:皇家計畫阿卡族咖啡產銷泰北行動者為導向泰國山地治理能動性
外文關鍵詞:The Royal ProjectAkhacoffee productionnorthern Thailandactor-oriented approachThai governance in moutainsagency
相關次數:
  • 推薦推薦:0
  • 點閱點閱:127
  • 評分評分:*****
  • 下載下載:1
  • 收藏收藏:0
皇家計畫為1969年普美蓬九世王所推行一系列的計畫,目的是為了革除山地的鴉片的種植以及維護高山的森林生態。現今,皇家計畫持續推行並且成立基金會,在高山民族生計部分持續其影響力。
本研究主要以阿卡族的咖啡產銷,來探討泰北山區中不同阿卡咖啡農如何因應環境因素與外在結構,在咖啡產銷中發展不同的行動策略。筆者透過行動者為導向的研究方法(actor-oriented approach)與Bourdieu的資本形式之累積來探討不同咖啡農在環境(或者稱為外部干預)與社會行動者接合互動時,參與者知識、權力之間的不對等關係,將會產生社會霸權、文化多樣性以及內在衝突,而這些外部因素內部化(internalized)後,如何對不同行動利益群體產生不同的影響。
本研究從公民身份、土地使用、當地咖啡產銷狀況,三個面向來解析當前美斯樂的社會結構狀況,續而討論不同行動者在咖啡產銷所構出的行動策略。本研究透過田野分析調查,觀察出四個研究發現:(一)皇家計畫在山地鄉村的運作機制;(二)不同資本量下的行動者所衍伸咖啡買賣策略差異;(三)政府實際在美斯樂山區的土地規範、國籍身份限制與農產收購管理;(四)不同世代移動之間的差異。另外,本研究也發現,為了維持生計,不同世代間的移動,逐漸從群體到個人的移動,同時衝擊了阿卡民族的社群與其傳統文化維護。
近十年內,國家治理改變阿卡族的生活型態,政府主導的皇家計畫引進咖啡豆等作物,取代高山民族原有的作物與耕作型態,也因此逐漸嵌入阿卡族的生活成為文化的一部分。
The Royal Project is a series of plans put forward by the Thailand King Rama IX, also known as BhumibolAdulyadej, a reign started in 1969. The initial objective of the Royal Project is to eliminate opium harvest and to preserve mountain landscape. The Royal Project to this day still has influenced over highland tribes’ livelihood. This thesis attempts to investigate the Akha’s coffee production in northern Thailand, providing insight into coffeemakers’ ensuing coffee production strategies and practices as the result of different socio-economic factors and structures.
Through the actor-oriented approach and the discussion of capital accumulation, this paper arrived at the conclusion that the interaction between coffee farmers and different social actors from both inside and outside their socio-economic circumstances not only gives rise to an unequal distribution of knowledge, power but also results in the creation of social hegemony, cultural diversities and inner conflicts. With these socio-economic factors mixed up and internalized, different actors end up with different influences.
This study delves into citizenship, land-use, local industrial situation when dissecting Mae Salong’s social structure and different actors’ strategies for coffee production in mountain-side Mae Salong. By ways of fieldwork investigation and information analysis, the researcher attained findings for the followings (1) the Royal Project’s operating mechanism in the rural mountainside. (2) coffee varieties derived using different cultivated plans funded by different capitals. (3) Local authorities’ land provisioning, nationality’s limitation and buyback management in the Mae Salong mountainside. (4) the diaspora among different generations. It’s worth noting that generational diaspora has been transiting from group based to individual based, significantly impacting Akha tribe’s social community and tradition culture. The Thai authority has over the past ten years been introducing farming technology and encouraging coffee production as the main cash crop for substituting tradition crop and farming practices, transforming Akha’s livelihood and culture.
目錄
摘要 i
Abstract ii
謝誌 iv
目錄 vi
圖表目錄 ix
表目錄 ix
第一章      緒論 1
一、 研究動機 1
(一)研究初衷與歷經過程—多族群樂園與我對美斯樂的誤解 1
(二)再訪美斯樂——只見殘影的阿卡族觀光業 2
(三)山頭另一端隱沒的咖啡——竄入的轉機 3
二、問題意識與研究設計 5
(一)問題意識 5
(二)行動者導向的研究方法 6
(三)以Bourdieu的資本形式作為分析 8
(四)研究書寫 9
(五)研究地點與研究期程 11
三、歷史背景與文獻回顧 12
(一)美斯樂的故事與歷史:從抗戰、農技專家與美斯樂咖啡起頭 12
(二)高山民族的文化、宇宙觀以及轉變 14
(三)泰國國家逐漸治理邊境山地的權力圖像 17
(四)轉向討論「被衝擊的社群」 19
四、章節安排 20
第二章、泰國北部農耕的脈絡轉變 22
一、Akha Zahˇ與燒墾農業(Qaiya-aneya)文化的相互依存 23
(一)阿卡族與其燒墾系統──刀耕火種 23
(二)耕作與阿卡文化信仰關係 24
二、罌粟佈滿山野──冷戰時邊境的多方政治角力 27
(一)娛樂藥物鴉片在亞洲的發展 27
(二)國民黨、鴉片、泰北金三角 29
(三)泰北滿山谷的鴉片——罌粟的易植性 31
三、阿卡族在泰國的逐漸被治理的軌跡 32
(一)國家的治理技術——進入山林,治理被染紅的高山民族 32
(二)政府開發山野——土地利用限制與作物耕作的轉變 34
(三)皇家計畫的開始 38
(四)咖啡豆進入泰國 41
四、小結 43
第三章 美斯樂的環境背景與其結構衝擊 45
一、美斯樂的定義與咖啡產銷 46
(一)「美斯樂」的定義與範圍 46
(二)美德村的咖啡產銷 47
二、皇家計畫對美斯樂農業的影響 50
(一)皇家計畫的真實面貌——美斯樂咖啡與皇家計畫的連結 50
(二)皇家計畫的爭議與實際狀況 53
三、山區的結構概況:身份、土地、咖啡產銷 54
(一)身份政策下的公民與非公民劃分 54
(二)土地所有權──使用以及劃分方式 59
(三)美斯樂觀光業——當地的經濟發展狀況 62
(四)美斯樂的薪資與工作狀況 66
(五)阿卡族與華人間的對峙、競奪與互助 68
四、小結 73
第四章 阿卡族對結構衝擊的回應 75
一、加入皇家計畫希望與掙扎 75
(一)阿黎的日常 75
(二)咖啡農對政府沒有信心下其他因應行動 78
二、除了皇家計畫的其他選項 82
(一)跨區域的價格戰——收購區域咖啡豆,進軍中低價市場 82
(二)被外界評價的咖啡豆——高價市場的種種試煉 87
三、小農的對策 92
(一)非公民農夫進入咖啡產銷—轉手交易免除限制 92
(二)離開自己的田,往外尋求發展機會 95
四、移動帶來的未來想像—咖啡的資本積累以及轉投資 99
(一)移動對不同世代的意義 100
(二)村莊的耳語,一個牽一個進入掏金夢 102
(三)移出的年輕臉孔—子女的留學打工,階級翻轉的未來夢 104
五、小結 107
第五章、結論 109
一、皇家計畫最壞的結果 109
二、論文的章節回顧與研究發現 110
(一)研究簡述 110
(二)皇家計畫在鄉村的運作狀況 112
(三)能動者之間的差異所衍生的咖啡行銷策略 113
(四)去中心化的邊境地區治理 115
(五)群體的移動逐漸從群體導向個人 116
三、不足之處與自省 116
四、結語 117
六、參考文獻 119
中文文獻 119
外文文獻 120
中文文獻
覃怡輝(2009 )。金三角國軍血淚史: 1950-1981。臺北:中央研究院、 聯經出版事業公司。
孔建勳(2006)。泰國北部阿卡族的文化人類學調查。雲南社會科學,91, 90-93。
張雯勤 (2002)。從難民到移民的跨越——再論泰北前國民黨雲南人遷移模式的轉變。 海華與東南亞研究 ,2(1):47-73。
蕭文軒 、顧長永 (2011)。 權力與抵抗: 泰國 [國家-高山民族] 關係的探析。問題與研究, 50(4):89-132。
許純鎰(2016)。 從異域到茶鄉: 泰北邊境的茶產業與地方浮現。 臺灣大學地理環境資源學研究所學位論文。
李雪雪(2012)。泰北孤軍後裔的認同協商。國立暨南國際大學碩士學位論文 。
邊心宇 (2014)。 泰北美斯樂的軍事統治與華人村的建立(1964-1982)。 臺灣師範大學地歷史研究所學位論文。 
黃應貴(1975)。刀耕火種與水田耕作的經濟。人類與文化,6:37-2。
金榮勇(2003)。國際社會對於緬甸朝野對峙的困境與前景。問題與研究42(3): 103-119。
田秀娟、趙陽(1996)。泰國的山區扶貧與山民改造。世界農業 (9):9-11。
林孝庭(2013)。臺海‧冷戰‧蔣介石:解密檔案中消失的臺灣史1949-1988。臺北:聯經出版。

外文文獻
Alting von Geusau, L. 1983. “Dialectics of Akhazang: The Interiorizations of a Perennial Minority Group. In Highlanders in Thailand. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Oxford University Press.  Pp.243-277.
Alting Von Geusau, L. 2000. “Akha Internal History: Marginalization and the Ethnic Alliance System”. In Civility and Savagery: Social Identity in Tai States. London, United Kingdom: Cuzon Press. Pp.122-158.
Angkasith, P. 2002. “Coffee Production Status and Potential of Organic Arabica Coffee in Thailand.” AU Journal of Technology, 5(3). Retrieved from http://www.assumptionjournal.au.edu/index.php/AUJournalofTechnology/article/view/1181.
Archavanitkul, K. 2014. Towards Managing Stateless People in a Thai Context. In Human Rights and Support for Stateless People around the World: Japan’s Role Senri Ethnological Reports 118. Osaka, Japan: National Museum of Ethnology. Pp. 185-196.
Bourdieu, P. 1986. “The Forms of Capital.” In Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. New York: Greenwood. Pp. 241-258.
Chang, Wen-Chin. 2014. Beyond Borders: Stories of Yunnanese Chinese Migrants of Burma.  Ithaca: Cornell University Press.  
Chitbundid, Chanida. 2004. โครงการอันเนื่องมาจากพระราชดำริ : การสถาปนาพระราชอำนาจนำ [The Royally-Initiated Projects: The Making of Royal Hegemony (B.E. 2494-2546)]. Master's Thesis of Faculty of Sociology and Anthropology. Bangkok, Thailand: Thammasat University, Pp.1-545.
Chouvy, P.-A. 2013. An Atlas of Trafficking in Southeast Asia: The Illegal Trade in Arms, Drugs, People, Counterfeit Goods and Natural Resources in Mainland Southeast Asia. London, UK: IB Tauris.  
Cohen, E. 2008. “Southeast Asian Ethnic Tourism in a Changing World.” Asian Anthropology, 7(1): 25-56. doi:10.1080/1683478x.2008.10552578  
Cooper, R. G. 1979. “The Tribal Minorities of Northern Thailand Problems and Prospects.” Southeast Asian Affairs, 1979(25): 323-332. doi:10.1355/9789812306692-027  
Delang, C. O. 2002. “Deforestation in Northern Thailand: The Result of Hmong Farming Practices or Thai Development Strategies.” Society & Natural Resources, 15(6): 483-501. doi:10.1080/08941920290069137  
Dove, M. R. 1983. “Theories of Swidden Agriculture, and the Political Economy of Ignorance.” Agroforestry Systems, 1(2): 85-99. doi:10.1515/9783110870275.   
Forsyth, T., & Walker, A. 2008. Forest Guardians, Forest Destroyers: The Politics of Environmental Knowledge in Northern Thailand. Washington: University of Washington Press.  
Hsieh, Sung-Ching. 2001. “Agricultural Technology Transfer to Developing Countries. Case Studies on Highland Agricultural Development in Northern Thailand.” ICDF Project Report. Taipei, Taiwan: TaiwanICDF. Retrieved from http://www.icdf.org.tw/web_pub/20020801103106Thailand%20Report.pdf.
Hung, P.-Y. and I. G. Baird. 2017. “From Soldiers to Farmers: The Political Geography of Chinese Kuomintang Territorialization in Northern Thailand.” Political Geography, 58(2017): 1-13. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2016.12.005.  
Hyun, Sinae. 2014. “Building a Human Border: The Thai Border Patrol Police School Project in the Post-Cold War Era.” Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia, 29(2): 332-363. doi:10.1355/sj29-2d  
Jonsson, H. 2005. Mien Relations: Mountain People and State Control in Thailand. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.  
Kammerer, C. A. 1990. “Customs and Christian Conversion among Akha Highlanders of Burma and Thailand.” American Ethnologist, 17(2): 277-291.  
Knüpfer, J. 2002. “Survival Strategies of Ethnic Minorities in the Highlands of Northern Thailand-Case Studies from Chiang Rai Province.” International Symposium on Sustaining Food Security and Managing Natural Resources in Southeast Asia–Challenges for the 21st Century, Chiangmai, Thailand.  
Korpraditskul, R., & Ratanakreetakul, C. 2015. “THAI Good Agricultural Practice.” Retrieved from http://ap.fftc.agnet.org/ap_db.php?id=558  
Latt, S. S. 2011. “More Than Culture, Gender, and Class: Erasing Shan Labor in the “Success” of Thailand's Royal Development Project.” Critical Asian Studies, 43(4): 531-550.  
Latt, S. S. 2009. “Ethnic Politics, Migrant Labour and Agrarian Transformation: a Case Study of the Hmong and Shan in a Royal Project in Northern Thailand.” In Canada Research Chair in Asian Studies, Montréal, Canada: Université de Montréal. Pp: 2-21. 
Latt, S.S. ., & Roth, R. 2014. “Agrarian Change and Ethnic Politics: Restructuring of Hmong and Shan Labour and Agricultural Production in Northern Thailand.” Journal of Agrarian Change, 15(2): 220-238. doi:10.1111/joac.12081 
Laungaramsi P. 2015. “Re-) Crafting Citizenship: Cards, Colors and the Politic of Identification in Thailand.” In Harvard-Yenching Institute Working Paper Series, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard-Yenching Institute.  
Laungaramsri, P.1998. “วาทกรรมว่าด้วย ‘ชาวเขา’ ( On the Discourse of ‘Hill Tribes’)” .วารสารสังคมศาสตร์(Social Sciences Journal), 11(1): 92-125.  
Leach, E. R. 1970. Political Systems of Highland Burma, a Study of Kachin Social Structure. London, UK: Athlone Press.  
Long, N. 2007. “Resistance, Agency and Counterwork: A Theoretical Positioning.” In The Fight over Food: Producers, Consumers, and Activists Challenge the Global Food System. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State Univ Press. Pp. 70-89.
Long, N. 1984. “A Perspective on the Sociology of Development.” Sociologia Ruralis, 24(3‐4), 168-184.  
Long, N. 2003. Development Sociology: Actor Perspectives. Oxford, England: Routledge.  
Mika, T. 1998. “Urban Migration and Cross-border Networks: A Deconstruction of the Akha Identity in Chiang Mai.” South East Asia Studies, 35(4): 803-829   
Morton, M. F. 2013.  “If You Come Often, We Are Like Relatives; If You Come Rarely, We Are Like Strangers: Reformations of Akhaness in the Upper Mekong Region.” Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies, 6(1): 29-59. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4232/10.ASEAS-6.1-3  
Morton, M. F., et al. 2016. “Decolonizing Methods: Akha Articulations of Indigeneity in the Upper Mekong Region.” Asian Ethnicity, 17(4): 580-595. (Master dissertation). Retrieved from https://www.dseas.ncnu.edu.tw/stu/archive.php?class=201  
Peleggi, M. 2007. Thailand: The Worldly Kingdom. Bangkok, Thailand: Reaktion Books.  
Pendergrast, M. 2015. Beyond Fair Trade. Vancouver, Canada: Greystone Books. 
Peter Vandergeest 1996. “Mapping Nature: Territorialization of Forest Rights in Thailand.” Society & Natural Resources, 9(2): 159-175. doi: 10.1080/08941929609380962  
Renard, R. D. and S. Warning 1996. The Burmese Connection. Illegal Drugs and the Making of the Golden Triangle. Studies on the Impact of the Illegal Drug Trade, Vol. 6. Boulder, London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.  
Scott, J. C. 2007. Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. Connecticut: Yale University Press. 
Scott, J. C. 2009. The Art of not Being Governed: An Anarchist History of Upland Southeast Asia. Connecticut: Yale University Press.  
Sturgeon, J. C. 2007. Border Landscapes: The Politics of Akha Land Use in China and Thailand. Washington: University of Washington Press.  
Tapp, N. 2005. Preface [to] Sovereignty and Rebellion: The White Hmong of Northern. Chiangmai, Thailand: White Lotus Press.  
The Highland Research and Development Institute. 2007. The Peach and the Poppy: The Story of Thailand's Royal Project. Chiangmai, Thailand: Royal Project Foundation.  
Tong-Ngam, C., et al. 1997. “Resource Management and Decision-making in the Thai Highlands.” Journal of Contemporary Asia, 27(2): 179-197.  
Tooker, D. E. 1992. “Identity Systems of Highland Burma:'Belief', Akha Zán, and a Critique of Interiorized Notions of Ethno-Religious Identity.” Man, 27(4): 799-819. doi:10.2307/2804175 
Tooker, D. E. 2012. Space and the Production of Cultural Difference among the Akha Prior to Globalization: Channeling the Flow of Life. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press.  
Toyota, M. 2007. “Ambivalent Categories Hill Tribes and Illegal Migrants in Thailand. Borderscapes.” In Borderscapes: Hidden Geographies and Politics at Territory's Edge. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press. Pp. 91-116.  
Trupp, A. 2015. “Agency, Social Capital, and Mixed Embeddedness among Akha Ethnic Minority Street Vendors in Thailand's Tourist Areas.” Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia, 30(3): 780-818.  
Trupp, A. (2015). “The Development of Ethnic Minority Souvenir Over Time and Space.” International Journal of Asia-Pacific Studies,11(1): 145-167.  
Turner, S., et al. 2015. Frontier Livelihoods: Hmong in the Sino-Vietnamese Borderlands. Washington: University of Washington Press.  
Ungpakorn, G. J. 2006. “The Impact of the Thai ‘Sixties’ on the Peoples Movement Today.” Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 7(4), 570-588.  
Winichakul, Thongchai. 1994. Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-body of a Nation. Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press.  
Xu, J., E. T. Ma, D. Tashi, Y. Fu, Z. Lu, and D. Melick. 2005. “Integrating Sacred Knowledge for Conservation: Cultures and Landscapes in Southwest China.” Ecology and Society, 10(2), 7. [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol10/iss2/art7/  
Xu, J., L. Lebel, and J. Sturgeon. 2009. “Functional Links between Biodiversity, Livelihoods, and Culture in a Hani Swidden Landscape in Southwest China.” Ecology and Society,14(2), 20. [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol14/iss2/art20/  
 
 
 
 
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top

相關論文

無相關論文
 
* *