帳號:guest(34.207.247.69)          離開系統
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  

詳目顯示

以作者查詢圖書館館藏以作者查詢臺灣博碩士以作者查詢全國書目勘誤回報
作者:任漢娜
作者(英文):Van Regemortel Hanne
論文名稱(中文):白種人的負擔:「白」作為比利時社會排除他者的論述模式
論文名稱(英文):The white men's burden: the role of whiteness in excluding the "Other" from Belgian society through different forms of discourse
指導教授(中文):劉紀蕙
指導教授(英文):Liu, Joyce C.H.
口試委員:朱元鴻
口試委員(英文):Chu, Yuan-Horng
Hunter, Shona
Topolski, Anya
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:亞際文化研究國際碩士學位學程(臺灣聯合大學系統)
學號:0659906
出版年(民國):108
畢業學年度:108
語文別:英文
論文頁數:171
中文關鍵詞:whitenessotheringsocial exclusionracismcritical race theoryminorities
外文關鍵詞:whitenessotheringsocial exclusionracismcritical race theorycolonial stereotypesminorities
相關次數:
  • 推薦推薦:0
  • 點閱點閱:88
  • 評分評分:*****
  • 下載下載:5
  • 收藏收藏:0
The main argument of this thesis is that Belgian identity is constructed as exclusively white and Christian. Whiteness within the Belgian context remains largely understudied. Whiteness is deeply rooted in power structures which normalize whiteness which leads to the exclusion and othering of people who do not conform to the white norm. Through content analysis and CDA, this normalization of whiteness and its excluding character will be investigated. This thesis is divided into three parts, the first part investigates the role of Christianity in Belgian society and its evolution from mere religion to an inherent tool of Europeanness and whiteness. Also, the role of religion in Belgian’s colonial past through the creation of stereotypical images of black people and its continuous influence on nowadays racism and discrimination faced by people of colour will be investigated. The second part focuses on how whiteness excludes black people from Belgian’s society by examining the current debate on Belgian’s colonial past and the widespread reproduction of stereotypical images of black people – such as Black Pete – and their framing in the media. Data Analysis will make clear that black people are continuously framed as untrustworthy, aggressive, or ‘real’ racist ‘Other’ whose accusations of racism and discrimination, therefore, become invalid. The last part will investigate how Muslims are excluded as ‘Other’ from Belgian society through whiteness. The debate on the headscarf ban and the discussion on returning ‘foreign’ fighters will make clear how Muslims are systematically being framed as threatening ‘Other’ in Belgian mass media. The overall conclusion is that the dominantly white Belgian mass media structurally normalize whiteness and the exclusion of all ‘Other’ through the discourse they use.
The main argument of this thesis is that Belgian identity is constructed as exclusively white and Christian. Whiteness within the Belgian context remains largely understudied. Whiteness is deeply rooted in power structures which normalize whiteness which leads to the exclusion and othering of people who do not conform to the white norm. Through content analysis and CDA, this normalization of whiteness and its excluding character will be investigated. This thesis is divided into three parts, the first part investigates the role of Christianity in Belgian society and its evolution from mere religion to an inherent tool of Europeanness and whiteness. Also, the role of religion in Belgian’s colonial past through the creation of stereotypical images of black people and its continuous influence on nowadays racism and discrimination faced by people of colour will be investigated. The second part focuses on how whiteness excludes black people from Belgian’s society by examining the current debate on Belgian’s colonial past and the widespread reproduction of stereotypical images of black people – such as Black Pete – and their framing in the media. Data Analysis will make clear that black people are continuously framed as untrustworthy, aggressive, or ‘real’ racist ‘Other’ whose accusations of racism and discrimination, therefore, become invalid. The last part will investigate how Muslims are excluded as ‘Other’ from Belgian society through whiteness. The debate on the headscarf ban and the discussion on returning ‘foreign’ fighters will make clear how Muslims are systematically being framed as threatening ‘Other’ in Belgian mass media. The overall conclusion is that the dominantly white Belgian mass media structurally normalize whiteness and the exclusion of all ‘Other’ through the discourse they use.
PART I: THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF BELGIAN IDENTITY AS CHRISTIAN AND WHITE 1
CHAPTER 1: WHITENESS AND THE POWER OF LANGUAGE 7
CHAPTER 2: THE ROLE OF CHRISTIANITY IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF WHITENESS: BELGIUM 20
PART II: DISCOURSE ON BLACK PEOPLE AS THE ‘OTHER’ 43
CHAPTER 3: THE PERVASIVENESS OF COLONIALISM IN BELGIUM 44
CHAPTER 4: STEREOTYPICAL IMAGE OF BLACK PEOPLE 68
PART III: DISCOURSE ON MUSLIMS AS THE ‘OTHER’ 110
CHAPTER 5: HEADSCARF BAN IN BELGIUM 113
CHAPTER 6: RETURNING ‘FOREIGN’ FIGHTERS 131
CONCLUSION 154
BIBLIOGRAPHY 160



Adichie, C. N. (2009). The danger of a single story.
Aguilar, L. M. H., & Zubair, A. (2017). Persistence of Eurocentric orders and divisions. Reflections on» postcolonial scholarship «and the disentanglement of» race «and» religion «. InterDisciplines. Journal of History and Sociology, 8(2).
Al-Hejin, B. (2015). Covering Muslim women: Semantic macrostructures in BBC news. Discourse & Communication, 9(1), 19-46.
Asad, T. (2006). Trying to understand French secularism: na.
Aziz, R. (2017). Niemand zal hier slapen vannacht. Berchem: EPO.
Baldwin, J., & Morrison, T. (1998). James Baldwin: Collected Essays: Notes of a Native Son/Nobody Knows My Name/The Fire Next Time/No Name in the Street/The Devil Finds Work/Other Essays. Edited by Toni Morrison. New York: Library of America.
Balibar, E. (1991). Is there a “neo-racism”?
Balibar, E., & Wallerstein, I. M. (1991). Race, nation, class: Ambiguous identities: Verso.
Bentham, J., & Božovič, M. (1995). The panopticon writings: Verso Trade.
Bergman, S. (Writer). (2014). Zwart als roet. In P. Margreet (Producer). The Netherlands.
Biddiss, M. D. (1966). Gobineau and the origins of European racism. Race, 7(3), 255-270.
Bischoppenconferentie van België. (2018). De Katholieke Kerk in België Jaarrapport 2018.
Blommaert, J. (2017). De lotgevallen van de Witte: Over privileges, rechten en macht. Retrieved from https://jmeblommaert.wordpress.com/2017/09/29/de-lotgevallen-van-de-witte-over-privileges-rechten-en-macht/
Blondeel, W. (2017). La mission civilisatrice au Congo. Réduire des espaces de vie en prison et en enfer. Afrika Focus, 30(2).
Bourdieu, P. (1991). Language and symbolic power: Harvard University Press.
Bracke, S., & Fadil, N. (2012). " Is the Headscarf Oppressive or Emancipatory? The Postcolonial Low Countries: Literature, Colonialism, and Multiculturalism, 73.
Butler, J. (2011). Bodies that matter: On the discursive limits of sex: routledge.
Caldwell, V. F. (1996). Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings that Formed the Movement. Edited by Kimberle Williams Crenshaw et al. In: HeinOnline.
Calhoun, C. (2011). Rethinking secularism: OUP USA.
Caritas International België. (2019). Ons gemeenschappelijk huis. Migratie en ontwikkeling in België. Retrieved from
Casanova, J. (2006). Religion, European secular identities, and European integration: na.
Casanova, J. (2008). The problem of religion and the anxieties of European secular democracy. Religion and democracy in contemporary Europe, 63-74.
Césaire, A. (2001). Discourse on colonialism: NYU Press.
Ceuppens, B. (2004). Congo made in Flanders?: koloniale Vlaamse visies op" blank" en" zwart" in Belgisch Congo: Academia Press.
Chaves, M. (1994). Secularization as declining religious authority. Social forces, 72(3), 749-774.
Chiluwa, I. (2012). Social media networks and the discourse of resistance: A sociolinguistic CDA of Biafra online discourses. Discourse & Society, 23(3), 217-244.
Clarke, S., & Garner, S. (2009). White identities: A critical sociological approach: Pluto Press.
Coene, G., & Longman, C. (2008). Gendering the diversification of diversity: The Belgian hijab (in) question. Ethnicities, 8(3), 302-321.
Consuegra, E., Vantieghem, W., Halimi, M., & Van Houtte, M. (2016). Normbrekers: hoe scholen ruimte voor diversiteit kunnen creëren. Basis, 128(10), 22-24.
Conway, M. (1990). Building the Christian city: Catholics and politics in inter-war Francophone Belgium. Past & Present(128), 117-151.
Coolsaet, R., & Renard, T. (2018). Returnees–Who are they, why are they (not) coming back and how should we deal with them? Assessing Policies on Returning Foreign Terrorist Fighters in Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands. In: Egmont-Royal Institute for International Relations.
Crenshaw, K. W. (1988). Race, reform, and retrenchment: Transformation and legitimation in antidiscrimination law. Harvard Law Review, 1331-1387.
Crenshaw, K. W. (2010). Twenty years of critical race theory: Looking back to move forward. Conn. L. Rev., 43, 1253.
D'souza, D. (1995). The end of racism: Principles for a multiracial society: Free Press.
Davie, G. (2007). Vicarious religion: A methodological challenge. Everyday religion: Observing modern religious lives, 21-36.
De Swert, K., Kuypers, I., De Smedt, J., & Walgrave, S. (2018). Monitor Diversiteit 2018. Een kwantitatieve studie naar de zichtbaarheid van diversiteit op het scherm in Vlaanderen. Retrieved from
De Wever, B. (2007). Catholicism and Fascism in Belgium. Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, 8(2), 343-352.
Denzin, N. K. (2001). Reading race: Hollywood and the cinema of racial violence: Sage.
Dobbelaere, K., & Voye, L. (2012). Portrait du catholicisme en Belgique. Portraits du catholicisme. Une comparaison européenne, Rennes, Presses universitaires de Rennes, 11-61.
Dobbelaere, K., & Voyé, L. (1990). From pillar to postmodernity: The changing situation of religion in Belgium. SA. Sociological Analysis, S1-S13.
Du Bois, W. E. B. (2017). Black Reconstruction in America: Toward a history of the part which black folk played in the attempt to reconstruct democracy in America, 1860-1880: Routledge.
Du Bois, W. E. B., & Marable, M. (2015). Souls of black folk: Routledge.
Dumont, D. (2016). Dutch and Belgian Foreign Fighter Pathways. A first empirical analysis of Dutch and Belgian foreign fighters using a theoretical framework developed to map pathways and their (un) intended consequences in Syria and Iraq.
Duriez, B., Fontaine, J. R., & Hutsebaut, D. (2000). A further elaboration of the Post-Critical Belief scale: Evidence for the existence of four different approaches to religion in Flanders-Belgium. Psychologica Belgica, 40(3), 153-182.
Duriez, B., Hutsebaut, D., & Roggen, F. (1999). Racism and Post-Critical Belief. A new approach of an old problem. Journal of Empirical Theology, 12(2), 5-27.
Dyer, R. (1997). White: Essays on race and culture. In: London: Routledge.
Eddo-Lodge, R. (2018). Why I'm No Longer Talking to White People about Race: Bloomsbury Publishing.
El-Tayeb, F. (2011). European others: Queering ethnicity in postnational Europe: U of Minnesota Press.
Essed, P. (1991). Understanding everyday racism: An interdisciplinary theory (Vol. 2): Sage.
Ewans, M. (2003). Belgium and the colonial experience. Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 11(2), 167-180.
Fadil, N. (2005). Het hoofddoekendebat: meer dan een debat over een stukje stof. Ethische perspectieven, 14(4), 373-386.
Fadil, N. (2016). Are we all secular/ized yet?’: reflections on David Goldberg’s ‘Are we all post-racial yet? Ethnic and Racial Studies, 39(13), 2261-2268.
Fanon, F. (1970). Black skin, white masks: Paladin London.
Fetzer, J. S., & Soper, J. C. Muslims and the State in Britain, France, and Germany.
Foucault, M. (2012). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison: Vintage.
Foucault, M. (2013). Archaeology of knowledge: Routledge.
Foucault, M., & Ewald, F. (2003). " Society Must Be Defended": Lectures at the Collège de France, 1975-1976 (Vol. 1): Macmillan.
Franken, L. (2016). The freedom of religion and the freedom of education in twenty-first-century Belgium: a critical approach. British Journal of Religious Education, 38(3), 308-324.
Gardner, R., Karakaşoğlus, Y., & Luchtenberg, S. (2008). Islamophobia in the media: A response from multicultural education. Intercultural education, 19(2), 119-136.
Gorski, P. S., & Altınordu, A. (2008). After secularization? Annu. Rev. Sociol, 34, 55-85.
Gotanda, N., & Peller, G. (1995). Critical race theory: The key writings that formed the movement: The New Press.
Griffin, C. (2002). Whiteness and European Situatedness. Thinking differently: a reader in European women's studies. C. Griffin and R. Braidotti. London and New York. In: Zed Books.
Grosfoguel, R., & Mielants, E. (2006). The Long-Durée entanglement between Islamophobia and racism in the modern/colonial capitalist/patriarchal world-system: An introduction. Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge, 5(1), 2.
Habermas, J. (2006). Religion in the public sphere. European journal of philosophy, 14(1), 1-25.
Hamel, C. E. (2002). Muslim diaspora in Western Europe: The Islamic headscarf (hijab), the media and Muslims' integration in France. Citizenship Studies, 6(3), 293-308.
Hervieu-Léger, D. (2000). Religion as a Chain of Memory: Rutgers University Press New Brunswick, NJ.
Hochschild, A. (1999). King Leopold's ghost: A story of greed, terror, and heroism in colonial Africa: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Hooks, B. (2006). Black looks: Race and representation: Academic Internet Pub Inc.
Jensen, R. (2005). The heart of whiteness: Confronting race, racism and white privilege: City Lights Books.
Kalu, O. (2005). African Christianity: An African Story: Dept. of Church History, University of Pretoria.
Kastoryano, R. (2006). French secularism and Islam: France’s headscarf affair: na.
King Jr, M. L. (1992). Letter from Birmingham jail. UC Davis L. Rev., 26, 835.
King Jr, M. L. (2010). Where do we go from here: Chaos or community? (Vol. 2): Beacon Press.
Kinnvall, C. (2004). Globalization and religious nationalism: Self, identity, and the search for ontological security. Political psychology, 25(5), 741-767.
Lafleur, J.-M., Marfouk, A., & Fadil, N. (2018). Migratie in België in 21 vragen en antwoorden.
Lecluyse, W. (2018, 29 April 2018). Verblijfsvergunning van 112 zware criminelen ingetrokken. De Standaard. Retrieved from http://www.standaard.be/cnt/dmf20180429_03488606
Lemmens, K. (2017). The dark side of ‘Zwarte Piet’: A misunderstood tradition or racism in disguise? A legal analysis. The International Journal of Human Rights, 21(2), 120-141.
Loffman, R. (2015). On the fringes of a Christian kingdom: the White Fathers, colonial rule, and the Báhêmbá in Sola, Northern Katanga, 1909-1960. Journal of Religion in Africa, 45(3-4), 279-306.
Mangelsdorf, E. (2016). Responses to Black Pete-Incumbents reacting to grassroots organisations on a controversial Dutch issue.
Matsuda, M. J. (1987). Looking to the bottom: Critical legal studies and reparations. HaRv. cR-cll Rev., 22, 323.
Mbembe, A. (2008). Necropolitics. In Foucault in an Age of Terror (pp. 152-182): Springer.
McCrea, R. (2007). Limitations on religion in a liberal democratic polity: Christianity and Islam in the public order of the European Union.
McIntosh, P. (1988). White privilege: Unpacking the invisible knapsack. In: ERIC.
McIntosh, P. (2007). White privilege and male privilege. Race, Ethnicity and Gender: Selected Readings, 377-385.
Mills, C. W. (2004). Racial exploitation and the wages of whiteness. In What white looks like (pp. 41-70): Routledge.
Mills, C. W. (2014). The racial contract: Cornell University Press.
Modood, T., Triandafyllidou, A., & Zapata-Barrero, R. (2006). Europe, liberalism and the ‘Muslim question’: Bhikhu Parekh. In Multiculturalism, Muslims and Citizenship (pp. 190-214): Routledge.
Monteiro-Ferreira, A. (2018). The Creation and Concept of Europe and the Ideological Germs of Racism. Journal of Pan African Studies, 11(8), 46-64.
Ochs, E. (1992). Indexing gender. Rethinking context: language as an interactive phenomenon, ed. by Alessandro Duranti and Charles Goodwin, 335–58. In: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Omulokoli, W. (1986). The quest for authentic African Christianity. East African Journal of Evangelical Theology, 5(2), 22-35.
Pew Research Center. (2015). Religious Composition by Country, 2010-2050. Retrieved from https://www.pewforum.org/2015/04/02/religious-projection-table/2020/percent/all/
Phalet, K., & Swyngedouw, M. (2003). Measuring immigrant integration: the case of Belgium. Studi Emigrazione, 773-804.
Poulain, M., & Perrin, N. (2002). The demographic characteristics of immigrant populations in Belgium. The demographic characteristics of immigrant populations. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 57-130.
Price, P. L. (2010). At the crossroads: Critical race theory and critical geographies of race. Progress in human Geography, 34(2), 147-174.
Robbins, J. M., & Krueger, J. I. (2005). Social projection to ingroups and outgroups: A review and meta-analysis. Personality and social psychology review, 9(1), 32-47.
Rollock, N., & Gillborn, D. (2011). Critical race theory (CRT). British Educational Research Association online resource.
Said, E. W. (1979). Orientalism: Vintage.
Samaie, M., & Malmir, B. (2017). US news media portrayal of Islam and Muslims: a corpus-assisted Critical Discourse Analysis. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 49(14), 1351-1366.
Savage, K. (1994). The politics of memory: Black emancipation and the Civil War monument. Commemorations: The politics of national identity, 127-149.
Seedhouse, P. (2004). Conversation analysis methodology. Language learning, 54(S1), 1-54.
Shadid, W. (2005). Berichtgeving over moslims en de islam in de westerse media: Beeldvorming, oorzaken en alternatieve strategieën/Muslims and Islam in Western Media. Tijdschrift voor communicatiewetenschap, 33(4), 330.
Spivak, G. C. (1985). The Rani of Sirmur: An essay in reading the archives. History and Theory, 24(3), 247-272.
Statistiek Vlaanderen. (2018). Lokale Inburgerings- en Integratiemonitor editie 2018 - Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest. Vlaamse Overheid Retrieved from https://www.statistiekvlaanderen.be/monitor-lokale-inburgering-en-integratie.
Stoler, A. L. (2010). Along the archival grain: Epistemic anxieties and colonial common sense: Princeton University Press.
Storm, I. (2011). Christian nations? Ethnic Christianity and anti-immigration attitudes in four western European countries. Nordic Journal of Religion and Society, 24(1), 75-96.
Su, H. Y. (2008). What does it mean to be a girl with qizhi?: Refinement, gender and language ideologies in contemporary Taiwan. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 12(3), 334-358.
Sullivan, S. (2014). Good white people: The problem with middle-class white anti-racism: Suny Press.
Sullivan, S., & Tuana, N. (2007). Race and epistemologies of ignorance: SUNY Press.
Timmerman, C., Lodewyckx, L., Vanheule, D., & Wets, J. (2004). Wanneer wordt vreemd, vreemd?: de vreemde in beeldvorming, registratie en beleid: ACCO.
Trouillot, M.-R. (1995). Silencing the past: Power and the production of history: Beacon Press.
Van Der Pijl, Y., & Goulordava, K. (2014). Black pete,“smug ignorance,” and the value of the black body in postcolonial Netherlands. New West Indian Guide/Nieuwe West-Indische Gids, 88(3-4), 262-291.
Van Dijk, T. A. (1993). Elite discourse and racism (Vol. 6): Sage.
Van Dijk, T. A. (2003). Critical Discourse Analysis. The Handbook of Discourse Analysis. Schiffrin, D., Tannen, D and Heidi E. Hamilton. In: Blackwell Publishing.
Vanthemsche, G. (1999). Radioscopie van een kolonie: Belgisch-Congo 1908-1960. Brood & Rozen, 4(2).
Verbiest, I., & El Arifi, M. (2018). Hoe divers is de Vlaamse elite? 72% is man, 97% is westers. Retrieved from
Vermaut, A. (2018). KOLONISATIESTRATEGIEËN IN BELGISCH-CONGO: DE RELATIE TUSSEN GIOVANNI DELLEPIANE EN AEQUATORIA (1937-1949).
Vlaams Ministerie van Onderwijs en Vorming. (2019). Statistisch jaarboek van het Vlaams onderwijs: Schooljaar 2017-2018: Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap, departement Onderwijs.
Voyé, L., & Dobbelaere, K. (1997). Des transformations du catholicisme en Belgique: pratiques et valeurs: Centre de recherche et d'information socio-politiques, CRISP.
Wallerstein, I. M. (2006). European universalism: The rhetoric of power: New Press New York.
Ward, J., & Rocha, R. (2018). “No more blackface!” How can we get people to change their minds about Zwarte Piet? Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis, 7(1), 6.
Weiner, M. F. (2015). Whitening a diverse Dutch classroom: white cultural discourses in an Amsterdam primary school. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 38(2), 359-376.
Wekker, G. (1995). ‘After the Last Sky, Where do the Birds Fly?’What Can European Women learn from Anti-Racist Struggles in the United States? : na.
Wekker, G. (2016). White innocence: Paradoxes of colonialism and race: Duke University Press.
Wets, J. (2006). The Turkish community in Austria and Belgium: The challenge of integration. Turkish Studies, 7(1), 85-100.
Wiegman, R. (2003). My name is Forrest, Forrest Gump": Whiteness studies and the paradox of particularity. Multiculturalism, postcoloniality, and transnational media, 227-255.
Zemni, S. (2011). The shaping of Islam and Islamophobia in Belgium. Race & Class, 53(1), 28-44.

 
 
 
 
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
* *