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作者:陳安妮
作者(外文):An-Nie Chen
論文名稱:台灣阿里山鄒族善終概念之初探:困境、需求與期望
論文名稱(外文):Taiwan Alisan Tsou’s Perspective of Good-Dying: Dilemmas, Needs, and Expectations
指導教授:施富金
指導教授(外文):Fu-Jin Shih
學位類別:碩士
系所名稱:臨床暨社區護理研究所(103)
學號:39914004
出版年:102
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:367
中文關鍵詞:阿里山鄒族住民原住民社會權力結構部落族人傳統文化神靈信仰生死觀喪葬儀式善終概念困境所需協助建議與期望背景因素導向善終預立醫療計畫預立醫囑靈魂靈性安適西方宗教教會探索性質性研究
外文關鍵詞:Alisan Tsou residentsaboriginal peopleaboriginal tribestraditional culturegodly belieflife-death valuesfuneral ritualsceremonygood-dyinggood deathperspectivesdilemmasneedssuggestions and expectationsbackground contextconvert to good-dyingadvanced care planningadvanced directivessoulspiritual well-beingwestern religionschurchesexplorative qualitative research
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研究背景
  2009年十大死因粗死亡率中,原住民較非原住民高出1.2倍,其中,阿里山鄒族人口僅存6, 840人,在十四族中為排名第九,在照護這樣高死亡率的少數民族,實需我們給予醫療關注及善終照護。善終是疾病末期照顧追求之主要目標,而對於善終有清楚的認識,則是提供善終照顧之起點。然而,台灣促進善終的困境,缺少系統性文獻的探討,台灣十四族原住民包括鄒族善終的相關研究,至今更不明朗。
阿里山鄒族有著傳統神靈信仰、生死觀及宗教,並長期接受某區域教學醫院現代化醫療照護。此外,有關阿里山鄒族住民對善終的概念、困境、所需協助、對醫療團隊的建議與期望,以及如何結合區域教學醫院的醫療照護,至今仍所知有限,也是今日醫療人員照護阿里山鄒族住民所面對的重要挑戰。
研究目的
本研究之研究目的有:
一、探討阿里山鄒族住民對善終的概念。
二、探討達到阿里山鄒族住民善終的困境及所需協助。
三、探討阿里山鄒族住民對醫療團隊如何協助其善終的建議與期望。

研究方法
本研究採探索性質性研究,藉由台灣南部某區域教學醫院協助認識阿里山鄒族住民,以立意取樣法收案。以半結構式訪談指引進行面對面深入訪談,每次訪談約50-120分鐘,內容再以質性內容分析法進行深入分析。
研究結果
  本研究共訪談18位個案,其中6位男性,12位女性。年齡介於
28~78歲(mean + SD = 57.1 ± 15.1)。14位已婚、2為喪偶、1位再婚及1位未婚。身體狀況只有3位自覺健康,其餘均有內外科相關疾病。其主要照顧者有11位為配偶,其他為兒子(n = 3),媳婦(n = 2),表哥(n = 1)、或姐姐(n = 1)。3位有大學/大專以上學歷。個人平均月收入方面,介於0~NT $ 60,000元(mean + SD = NT $27,194.4 + 17,760.0元)。宗教信仰方面,10位天主教、4位基督教、3位鄒族傳統信仰、1位無宗教信仰。
  研究結果發現,阿里山鄒族住民對善終的概念主要內容包括:(一)靈魂得前往好歸所,靈性得到安適;(二)部落是我終生家,落葉一定要歸根;(三)使用結合鄒文化與自己宗教信仰的喪葬儀式;(四)有鄒族部落的精神支持;(五)自我價值受部落族人肯定,擁有尊嚴;及(六)減少往生前身心靈與疾病痛苦。
  善終的困境方面,可由四階段進行了解。在phase I的主要困境為:(1)缺乏維持健康、安全的生活型態(n = 16, 88.9%)、與
(2)對文化禁忌缺乏嚴謹遵守(n = 10, 55.6%)。從phase I延伸到phase II的主要困境為:(1)缺乏家人完善溝通與照顧(n = 9, 50.0%)、與(2)缺乏完善山區醫療照護(n = 8, 44.4%)。從phase IV的主要困境為:族人哀傷過程難以療癒(n = 12, 66.7%)。從phase I延伸到phase III主要困境為:(1)對西方現代化保健醫療知識不足(n = 17, 94.4%)、與(2)地理偏遠、交通極為不便(n = 14, 77.8%)。從pahse I延伸到phase IV的主要困境為:(1)經濟負荷過重(n = 11, 61.1%)、(2)個人價值不受部落族人肯定(n = 6, 33.3%)、與(3)病家對宗教信仰的信心度不足(n = 9, 50.0%)。
  在所需協助方面,得知於phase I之主要需求為:族人健康狀況獲得監控(n = 6, 33.3%)。於phase II之主要需求為:延長生命的盼望(n = 9, 50.0%)。從phase I延伸到phase II之主要需求為:現代醫療知識的提供(n = 12, 66.7%)。從phase I延伸到phase III之主要需求為:(1)更強化的山區醫療照護(n = 8, 44.4%)、與(2)更方便的山際間交通(n = 8, 44.4%)。從phase II延伸到phase IV之主要需求為:更完善的身心照顧(n = 14, 77.8%)。從phase I延伸到phase IV之主要需求為:(1)經濟負擔獲得協助(n = 11, 61.1%)、(2)敬虔宗教信仰的支持(n = 12, 66.7%)、與(3)找回在部落的尊嚴(n = 8, 44.4%)。
  在建議與期望方面,得知瞭解、遵守鄒文化祭典及儀式(n = 8, 44.4%)的建議出現在phase I。強化治療及健康知識(n = 8, 44.4%)的建議出現在從phase I延伸到phase II,而於phase IV又出現。
(1)減低疾病疼痛(n = 8, 44.4%)、與(2)協助盡早預立醫囑、回家往生(n = 17, 94.4%)的建議出現在從phase II延伸到phase III。
(1)提供道路阻斷時的交通資源(n = 8, 44.4%)、與(2)強化山區醫療照護及醫病關係(n = 7, 38.9%)的建議出現在從phase I延伸到phase III。(1)善用家族、部落力量幫助病家(n = 8, 44.4%)、與
(2)提供專業心理輔導師(n = 7, 38.9%)的建議出現在從phase II延伸到phase IV。最後,(1)減低經濟負荷(n = 12, 66.7%)、與
(2)倚賴宗教獲靈性安適、導向善終(n = 8, 44.4%)的建議出現在從phase I延伸到phase IV。
結論
  有關阿里山鄒族住民對善終的概念,如何達到阿里山鄒族住民善終的困境、所需協助、以及對醫療團隊如何協助其善終的建議與期望,在本研究中首次較完整而深入的探討。本研究亦深入探討阿里山鄒族住民特有傳統社會結構、神靈信仰、宗教及生死觀,與其對善終之獨特概念。同時,亦針對促進阿里山鄒族住民善終,將有的困境、所需協助,提出具體建議。希能透將此研究結果,提供未來醫療團隊結合區域教學醫院、社區機構及教會資源的努力,對在照顧鄒族等原住民朋友時,不論在病人平時或生命末期,能及早察覺通往善終道路的諸多困境,給予適時、適當的協助,促進全人、全家、全程、全隊、全社區之五全照護。
Research Background
In 2009, aboriginal people’s Crude Death Rate (CDR) of top ten causes of death was 1.2 times higher than non-aboriginal people. The population of Alisan Tsou remains only 6,840 and ranked ninth among fourteen Taiwan aboriginal tribes. With this high death rate, health care professionals (HPs) should provide this minority more medical attentions and good-dying care. Good-dying is the main goal of terminal patient’s care, and understanding concepts of good-dying is the beginning of providing its care. However, there is few systematical researches about dilemmas of promote good-dying care in Taiwan. Research about good-dying of fourteen aboriginal tribes in Taiwan including Tsou is even rarer.
Alisan Tsou has traditional godly belief, life-death values, and religions. They also have received modern medical services from Southern Taiwan Regional Teaching Hospital (STRTH) for years. Nevertheless, Alisan Tsou’s perspectives, dilemmas, needs, and expectations of achieving good-dying, and the way to integrate medical services of STRTH and community health care systems were rarely kown. Yet, it is a significant challenge for today HP to provide care for Alisan Tsou residents.
Research Objectives
Aims of this study were to explore:
1. Alisan Tsou’s perspectives of good-dying.
2. Dilemmas and needs of achieving Alisan Tsou’s good-dying.
3. Suggestions and expectations for HP to assist Alisan Tsou people to
achieving good-dying.
Research Method
An explorative qualitative research method was used in this study. An Alisan Tsou resident was introduced by STRTH for purposive sampling. Data was collected through semi-structured face-to-face in-depth interviews (50-120 minutes every time), and then analyzed by qualitative content analysis.
Research Results
Eighteenth participants in this study contained 6 males and 12 females. Their age ranged from 28 to 78 years old (mean + SD = 57.1 ± 15.1). 14 participants were married, 2 were widowed, 1 was re-married, and 1 remained single. 3 participants reported to have good health condition, the others had chronic diseases. 11 of their primary caregivers were spouses, the others’ were sons (n = 3), daughter-in-law (n = 2), cousin (n = 1), and sister (n = 1). 3 of their educational status were colleges. The personal average monthly income ranged from from NT $0~60,000 (mean + SD = NT $ 27,194.4). As for religion status, 10 of the participants were Catholic, 4 were Christian, 3 believe Tsou’s traditional godly belief, and 1 had no religion.
The contents of Alisan Tsou’s perspectives of good-dying were:
(1) Spirit leave for good places and obtain spiritual well-being; (2) Tribe is my destined home and must die at home; (3) Performing funeral rituals combined of Tsou’s culture and personal religions; (4) Having psychosocial support from tribe people; (5) Personal values affirmed by tribe people and having dignity; and (6) Decreasing physical, psycho-spiritual pain and sufferings before death.
For the dilemmas of achieving good-dying, dilemmas at phase I were: (1) lack of healthy, safe pattern of life (n = 16, 88.9%); and (2) lack of strict obedience to culture taboos (n = 10, 55.6%); dilemmas from phase I to phase II were: (1) lack of families’ comprehensive communication and care (n = 9, 50.0%); and (2) lack of comprehensive community medical services (n = 8, 44.4%); dilemma at phase IV was: difficulty of bereaved families’ recovery from grieving (n = 12, 66.7%); dilemmas from phase I to phase III were: (1) lack of western modern medical and healthy knowledge (n = 17, 94.4%); and (2) long distances of location and inconvenience of transportation (n = 14, 77.8%); dilemmas from phase I to phase IV were: (1) heavy burden of financial status (n = 11, 61.1%); (2) lack of tribe residents’ approval for their personal value (n = 6, 33.3%); and (3) patients and family lack of sufficient faith from their religions (n = 9, 50.0%).
For the needs of achieving good-dying, the need at phase I was: surveillance of health stamen (n = 6, 33.3%); need at phase II was: hope for extend their life (n = 9, 50.0%); need from phase I to phase II was: provide modern medical knowledge (n = 12, 66.7%); needs from phase I to phase III were: (1) stronger community medical services (n = 8, 44.4%); and (2) more convenient transportation (n = 8, 44.4%); need from phase II to phase IV was: more comprehensive physical and mental care (n = 14, 77.8%); needs from phase I to phase IV were: (1) assistance with financial burden (n = 11, 61.1%); (2) spiritual support from reverent religions (n = 12, 66.7%); and (3) retrieve dignity in the tribe (n = 8, 44.8%).
For the suggestion to attaing good-dying, suggestion at phase I was: understanding and obedience of Tsou’s culture ceremonies and rituals (n = 8, 44.4%); suggestion from phase I to phase plus phase IV was: improving treatment and health knowledge (n = 8, 44.4%); suggestions from phase II to phase III were: (1) reducing disease pain (n = 8, 44.4%); and (2) early in helping performing advanced care planning (ACP) and passing away at home (n = 17, 94.4%); suggestions phase I to phase III were: (1) provide transportations as roads blocked (n = 8, 44.4%); and
(2) improving community medical care and nurse-patients relationships (n = 7, 38.9%); suggestions from phase II to phase IV were:
(1) reinforcing families and tribe’s power to help patients and family (n = 8, 44.4%); and (2) providing professional psychologists (n = 7, 38.9%); suggestions from phase I to phase IV: (1) reducing financial burden (n = 12, 66.7%); and (2) relying on religion to obtain spiritual well-being and converting to good-dying (n = 8, 44.4%).
Research Conclusions
Alisan Tsou’s perspectives, dilemmas, needs, and expectations of good-dying, were first comprehensively explored in this study. We investigated Alisan Tsou’s particular traditional social structure, godly belief, religions, life-death values, and their unique perspectives of good-dying. Meanwhile, suggestions of dillemas and needs of achieving Alisan Tsou’s good-dying were also offered. It’s hoped that this research results will help future HP to realize the ways of combining the resources of regional hospital, community organizations, and churches as caring Tsou or other aboriginal people. We’ll be able to earlier detect various dilemmas of achieving good-dying, and provide them prompt and appropriate help from usual time to end-of-life phase, and lastly, to provide them “5W care” – whole person, whole family, whole course, whole team, and whole community care.
致謝.......................................................I
中文摘要...................................................II
英文摘要..................................................VII
目錄....................................................XIII
圖目錄....................................................XVI
表目錄...................................................XVII
第壹章 緒論................................................1
第一節 研究動機與背景........................................1
第二節 研究問題.............................................4
第三節 研究目的.............................................5
第四節 名詞界定.............................................6第貳章 文獻查證.............................................9
第一節 阿里山鄒族的簡介及社會權力結構...........................9
第二節 阿里山鄒族的神靈信仰及生死觀............................18
第三節 善終的相關概念及當今執行困境............................27
第四節 達到阿里山鄒族善終的困境...............................40
第參章 研究方法............................................49
第一節 研究設計............................................49
第二節 研究對象及場所.......................................57
第三節 研究工具............................................60
第四節 資料收集過程.........................................61
第五節 資料分析方法.........................................63
第六節 研究嚴謹度...........................................66
第七節 研究倫理考量.........................................69
第肆章 研究結果............................................71
第一節 阿里山鄒族住民的基本資料...............................72
第二節 阿里山鄒族住民對善終的概念..............................76
第三節 達到阿里山鄒族住民善終的困境...........................110
第四節 達到阿里山鄒族住民善終所需的協助........................176
第五節 達到阿里山鄒族住民善終的建議與期望......................208
第伍章 討論..............................................260
第一節 阿里山鄒族住民於各善終階段達到善終的困境、所需協助、建議與期望概
念架構圖...........................................261
第二節 阿里山鄒族住民對善終的概念之探討........................286
第三節 達到阿里山鄒族住民善終的困境之探討......................297
第四節 達到阿里山鄒族住民善終所需的協助之探討...................309
第五節 達到阿里山鄒族住民善終的建議與期望之探討.................318
第陸章 結論與建議..........................................323
第一節 研究結論............................................323
第二節 研究限制............................................327
第三節 研究建議............................................329
參考文獻..................................................339
中文部分..................................................339
英文部分..................................................345
研究附錄..................................................362
附件一 個案基本資料........................................362
附件二 研究同意書..........................................363
附件三 半結構式訪談指引.....................................366
附件四 研究進度甘特圖......................................367

圖目錄
圖一 台灣阿里山南三村鄒族住民進行預立醫療計畫的困境概念架構圖.......48
圖二 研究進行流程圖.........................................62
圖三 阿里山鄒族住民於各階段的善終困境概念架構圖.................274
圖四 阿里山鄒族住民於各階段善終的所需協助概念架構圖..............275
圖五 阿里山鄒族住民於各階段善終的建議與期望概念架構圖............276
圖六 阿里山鄒族住民於各階段的善終困境與所需協助架構圖............285
圖七 阿里山鄒族住民對善終的概念架構圖.........................296
圖八 阿里山鄒族住民於各階段的善終困境與導向善終之所需協助架構圖....317

表目錄
表一 2009年原住民族與非原住民族主要死因粗死亡率之比較.............12
表二 個案人口學基本資料一覽表.................................73
表三 個案人口學基本資料總數表.................................75
表四 阿里山鄒族住民對善終的概念意義單元一覽表...................107
表五 達到阿里山鄒族住民善終的困境意義單元一覽表..................170
表六 達到阿里山鄒族住民善終所需的協助意義單元一覽表..............205
表七 達到阿里山鄒族住民善終的建議與期望意義單元一覽表.............254
表八 阿里山鄒族住民於各階段達到善終的困境、所需協助與建議一覽表.....278
表九 阿里山鄒族住民促進善終衛教單張-病人與家屬篇................332
表十 阿里山鄒族住促進善終衛教單張-醫療團隊篇...................333
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英文部分
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