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作者:謝碧霞
作者(外文):Pi-Hsia Hsieh
論文名稱:職場性別公平現況與性別公平知覺對工作態度及工作壓力之影響
論文名稱(外文):Sex equality in working environment and the effect of work attitude and work stress on sex equality awareness
指導教授:陸洛
指導教授(外文):Luo Lu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:人力資源管理研究所在職專班
舊系所名稱:人力資源管理研究所碩士在職專班
學號:954307018
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:66
中文關鍵詞:工作滿足性別性別公平公平理論離職傾向組織承諾工作壓力職家衝突
外文關鍵詞:genderintention to quitwork stressgender discriminationsatisfaction of workorganization commitmentwork-family conflict
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本研究以823位長期正式編制人員為研究對象,研究架構分為二個主軸分別探討。在主軸一,探討不同性別公平項目的公平情況,以及不同組織類型之性別公平現況是否有差異;在主軸二,以組織公平理論為基礎探討性別公平知覺對員工工作壓力與工作態度的影響。
研究結果,在主軸一發現台灣職場存在著對女性不公平的情況,而組織規模較大、女性人數較多、公營及商業服務業的組織性別公平程度較高;在主軸二發現性別公平知覺對員工之工作滿足及組織承諾有正向影響,尤以女性為甚;而性別公平知覺對員工之職家衝突有負向影響,尤以女性為甚;但無法證實性別公平知覺對員工之工作壓力及離職傾向有顯著影響。此外,研究中亦發現性別公平知覺與性別公平現況有正向相關。因此,本研究認為若要提高員工性別公平知覺進而提高員工工作滿足及組織承諾,降低職家衝突,須由改善職場公平現況著手。
This study comprises two parts: The first explores gender equality in the working environment and whether differences exist among different types of organizations; the second part employs the equity theory to explore the impact on work attitude and work stress when people become aware of unfairness in their treatment relative to the other gender.
The findings of the first part show that there is discrimination against women in Taiwan’s work environment, but larger, more female, publicly-owned and service trade industry organizations engage in gender discrimination to a lesser extent than other sectors. In another aspect of this study, we found that the employee awarness of equitable treatment for both genders increases employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment, while decreasing employee work-family conflict. The findings, however, did not support a finding that employee awarness of equitable treatment for both genders will impact an employee’s intention to quit or work stress. The findings also showed employee awarness of equitable treatment for both genders correlated positively with the gender equality of work environment. According to all these findings, this study suggests that if an organization wants to increase employee awarness of equitable treatment for both genders, in order to increase employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment, while decreasing work-family conflict, with the organization should begin by increasing gender equality in the work environment.
中文摘要i
Abstractii
誌謝iii
目錄vi
表目錄viii
圖目錄ix
第一章緒論1
第一節研究動機1
第二節研究目的2
第二章文獻探討3
第一節台灣職場性別公平現況3
一、勞動參與率3
二、薪資差距5
三、產業分佈與性別隔離7
四、職場性別差別待遇及相關研究10
五、小結12
第二節性別公平知覺與組織公平13
一、兩性工作平等與性別歧視13
(一)統計歧視理論14
(二)雙元勞動理論14
(三)偏好歧視理論14
(四)人力資本理論15
二、組織公平16
(一)分配公平17
(二)程序公平18
三、組織公平與性別公平知覺19
四、性別公平知覺相關研究20
五、小結23
第三節性別公平知覺與工作態度24
一、工作滿足24
(一)綜合性定義24
(二)期望差距定義24
(三)參考架構定義24
二、組織承諾25
三、離職傾向26
第四節性別公平知覺與工作壓力28
一、工作壓力28
(一)付出—回饋失衡模式28
(二)工作壓力程序模式29
(三)工作要求—控制模式29
(四)個人—環境適配模式29
二、職家衝突30
第三章研究方法33
第一節研究架構與研究假設33
第二節研究對象與調查方式34
第三節研究變項與衡量工具35
一、性別公平現況與性別公平知覺35
(一)性別公平現況35
(二)性別公平知覺36
二、工作態度36
(一)工作滿足36
(二)組織承諾37
(三)離職傾向37
三、工作壓力37
(一)工作壓力37
(二)職家衝突38
四、組織背景變項38
五、人口學變項39
第四章研究結果40
第一節樣本描述40
第二節性別公平現況描述性統計分析42
一、性別公平項目之公平程度42
二、不同組織類型之性別公平程度比較43
第三節性別公平知覺變項之信效度檢定46
第四節主要研究變項描述性統計48
第五節控制變項與主要研究變項之相關分析及T檢定49
第六節主要研究變項階層式迴歸分析52
一、「性別公平知覺」對「工作滿足」的影響52
二、「性別公平知覺」對「組織承諾」的影響53
三、「性別公平知覺」對「離職傾向」的影響54
四、「性別公平知覺」對「工作壓力」的影響55
五、「性別公平知覺」對「職家衝突」的影響56
六、小結56
第五章討論與建議57
第一節性別公平現況研究結果彙整及討論57
第二節性別公平知覺研究結果概述及討論59
一、性別公平知覺對員工工作滿足的影響59
二、性別公平知覺對員工組織承諾的影響59
三、性別公平知覺對員工離職傾向的影響60
四、性別公平知覺對員工工作壓力的影響61
五、性別公平知覺對員工職家衝突的影響61
第三節管理意涵62
第四節研究限制與後續研究建議66
參考文獻67
中文文獻67
英文文獻72
附錄81
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