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作者(中文):吳瑾瑋
作者(外文):Wu, Chinwei
論文名稱(中文):漢語中的介音、擦音和變調:從優選理論分析
論文名稱(外文):Prenuclear Glides, Fricatives and Tone Changes in Mandarin: An Optimality Theory Approach
指導教授(中文):蕭宇超教授
曹逢甫教授
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學號:828703
出版年(民國):91
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:215
中文關鍵詞:介音擦音變 調優選理論制約排序層級音韻習得二疊詞
外文關鍵詞:Prenuclear GlideFricativeTone SandhiOptimality TheoryConstraint RankingPhonological AcquisitionDisyllabic Reduplicant
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本篇研究是以現代音韻學中的優選理論(Optimality Theory)來分析漢語音韻中三個議題:分別是聲調變化(Tone Change)、介音(Prenuclear Glide)、和擦音(Fricative)。
聲調變化討論三種語料:親屬名詞類如姊姊,和一般類好好等和ㄦ化疊詞。這三類二疊詞的內部構詞結構和聲調變化歷程是很不同的。以衍生音韻學、自主音段音韻學、詞彙音韻論等分析都有困難。優選理論的精神在於以致約排序層級為可能的輸出值作評估篩選。ㄦ化二疊詞和親屬名詞二疊詞,前音節聲調必須和深層結構相同,因此詞基輸入值(IB)的聲調對應關係重要,其制約層級比較高。在一般性二疊詞中,IB對應制約影響性小於*T,因為這類二疊詞詞基以變調形式出現,該制約層級則降低。這是優選理論以制約層級不同給予三種聲調變化的解釋。

有關介音的分析,先從優選理論架構檢視孩童語言習得的漢語介音語料,再與成人語料進行比較。在孩童的音韻機制中,結構性制約排序層級高於忠實性制約,由此制約排序層級選出最佳優選值。結構性制約ONSET和*COMPLEX制約促使介音必須出現在聲母的位置。在孩童階段對三者介音的處理策略不同,在音節內部結構的歸屬上,對介音的處理是以CV形式為主,無其他聲母或刪除聲母,介音出現在聲母位置。然而至成人階段,排序層級改變,結構性制約排序下降,修正後的制約排序層級說明漢語三者介音歸屬聲母或韻母皆可。至於介音或聲母的保留刪除則由CONTIGUITY,PARSE/u/,IDENT(HEAD)三者制約排序層級來決定。

有關擦音分析,關鍵性制約如忠實性制約在初期排序層級在結構性制約之下,而後修正。大致說來,結構性制約經歷下降至忠實對應制約之下,而使制約排序層級修正至和成人相同,語言習得過程便算完成。而制約排序層級調整的方向是多方向性的。
The thesis investigates three problems in Mandarin phonology, including the prenuclear glides, the fricatives and the tone changes. Optimality Theory is used here, which assumes that the Universal Grammar (UG) consists of a set of constraints. The surface output form is selected by the ranking of constraints. Language differences are attributed to the different rankings of constraints. The constraint rankings take place of the derivational stages.
The first problem is the tone changes of three kinds of disyllabic reduplicants, such as xAw2 xAwN, þje3 þjeN, xAw3 xAwrH. The tone of the first syllable of the first reduplicant has to change whereas the two latters haveto maintain the lexical tone. The tone of the second syllable of the first reduplicant changes optinally, whereas the latters must change. OT proposes the correspondence relations among Input-Base, Input-RED, Base-RED, to explore the tone changes. However, there are problems in case of analying in Lexical Phonology or Autosegmental Phonology.

The second problem is the status of the prenuclear glides /j,w,ç/. The behaviour of the prenuvclear glides is different. The highly ranked constraints *COMPLEX, *ONSET, require the glides to occur in the onset position, where no other consonants available there. The constraints would be reranked as the child grows up. The markedness constraints demote under the faithfulness constraints finally. From the constraint rankings the prenuclear glides in adult forms are dominated either by the onset or the rhyme.

The third problem is the acquisition of Mandarin fricatives. Affricates, stopsand aspirated affricates are the replaced sound for the fricatives during the developing stages. The rankings of the relevant constraints such as MAX(cont), DEP(-cont),*+cont are reajsuted. It is found that the demotion and promotion of the constraints are probable. It is better to use the MAX constraint than the IDENT ones.

Not only the three problems mentioned above could be analyzed in OT, but also OT provides the explanations by constraint rankings instead of rule derivations for such as loanword phonology.
第一章 引言 1
1.1 研究問題說明 1

1.2 漢語音韻系統 3

1.3 組織架構 5

第二章 理論背景 7

2.1 引言 7

2.2 音韻理論 7

2.2.1 SPE 7

2.2.2詞彙音韻學 9

2.2.3自主音段音韻學 11

2.2.4優選理論 16

2.3語言習得 25

2.3.1音韻習得語料特色 26

2.3.2音韻習得理論 28

2.3.3優選理論和音韻習得 32

2.4小結 37

第三章 漢語二疊詞的聲調變化 39

3.1引言 39

3.2語料說明 41

3.2.1一般性二疊詞 41

3.2.2親屬名詞二疊詞 42

3.2.3ㄦ化二疊詞 43

3.3構詞標記分析 44

3.4自主音段音韻學分析 47

3.5詞彙音韻論 53

3.6優選理論分析 57

3.6.1相關制約說明 58

3.6.2親屬名詞二疊詞的分析 60

3.6.3一般性二疊詞優選理論分析 61

3.6.4ㄦ化二疊詞優選理論分析 65

3.7綜合討論 68

3.8小結 73

第四章 漢語介音分析 76

4.1引言 76

4.2介音與音節 78

4.2.1介音的歸屬 78

4.2.2介音/J/和/W/行為不同 79

4.2.3介音習得與音節結構 80

4.3語料來源及說明 84

4.3.1語料來源說明 84

4.3.2孩童音韻系統 84

4.3.3語料說明 85

4.4衍生音韻論分析 90

4.4.1 SPE分析 90

4.4.2絕對制約分析 91

4.5優選理論分析 93

4.5.1優選理論介紹 93

4.5.2相關制約說明 94

4.5.3孩童GV形式音節分析 97

4.5.4孩童介音/J/的分析 99

4.5.5介音/W/的分析 101

4.5.6介音/ç/的分析 103

4.5.7 V形式音節分析 108

4.6成人制約排序層級 114

4.6.1成人介音分析 114

4.6.2綜合討論 118

4.7小結 124

第五章 漢語擦音分析 125

5.1引言 125

5.2文獻探討 127

5.2.1塞音、擦音、塞擦音習得次序 127

5.2.2塞音、擦音、塞擦音的音韻表述 129

5.2.3送氣、持續、清濁的互動關係 132

5.3語料說明 133

5.4優選理論分析 138

5.4.1相關制約 139

5.4.2第一階段: 塞擦音替代擦音 140

5.4.3第二階段: 塞音替代擦音 143

5.4.4第三階段: 送氣塞擦音替代擦音 147

5.4.5第四階段: 擦音習得 151

5.5綜合討論 155

5.5.1結構性制約和忠實性制約的關係 155

5.5.2多方向制約排序調整 157

5.5.3塞音、塞擦音、擦音之音韻表述 168

5.5.4清濁、送氣、和持續性的關係 171

5.5.5習得先後次序 172

5.6小結 173

第六章 結論及後續問題 174

6.1結論 174

6.2後續問題 177

參考書目 179

[英文部分] 179

[中文部分] 207

附錄 211
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